Manifestation of Truth English Translation of Mishkat Sharah – Mazahir i Haq
Explanation of Mishqat ul Masabih)
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Shaykh Waliuddin Abu Abdullah Al-Khateeb Al-Tabrezi
Translation and Commentary Shaykh Nawab Qutbuddin Khan Dehlavi
Mawlana Muhammad Salim Qasmi Teacher oi Hadith, Dar ul Uloom, Deoband
It is a historical fact that the science of Hadith was not recorded during the times of the Prophet In contrast the Holy Quran was meticulously recorded and written
down in pursuance of the Prophet instructions. There is no other reason for
that except that the Quran is revealed by Allah both as for as its words and meanings are concerned. It is not in human power to offer a substitute or synonyms for its words. Allah has said:
The faithful spirit (fibril) has brought it down, upon your heart (O Prophet) that you may be one of the wamers (Ash-Shu’ara, 26:193-194)
Surely upon Us rests the collecting there of, and the reciting thereof. And surely upon us then rests the explaining thereof (al-Qiyamah, 75: 17-19)
As for Hadith, it is the speech of the Prophet though in terms of meaning it too is
revealed by Allah. This is clear from the categorical statement of Quran:
Nor does he say (aught) of (his own) desire. It is no less then inspiration sent down to him 1 (al Najm, 53:3-4)
Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Amr Pj said, “Whatever I heard from the lips of the Prophet J* j wrote down. The writing down was only to read but some of the Quraysh stopped me from doing it saying. The Messenger of Allah is a human being and speaks while he is pleased and also while angry. All that would come to be regarded as religion, tomorrow, hence, it is not proper to write down all he says. So, I ceased to write down and told the Prophet about it. The Prophet ?*~>j*J*&^* pointed out to his mouth and said, ‘By
Him who holds my life, nothing comes out of this mouth against Truth no matter what the circumstances.”
Besides no other people could even claim to match the intelligence and mental capabilities of the arabs. They had developed extra ordinary memory eloquence and intelligence and they were known for generations together to retain in memory what they had heard exactly as they had heard it. Accordingly, it is not proper to imagine their memory retention ability to be like our ability to retain in memory.
Therefore, it had come naturally to the first generation to investigate and search to the extreme degree the sayings and doir gs to the Prophet and they did it all of them.
In the times of the Sahabah (companions) and Tabi’ee (epigones), the position of the narrators of AHadith was best known to the people of their cities and other people did not have the means to know that much. The narrators were from different lands, the Hijaz, Syria. 1
However, in the eyes of the Muhadditheen 2 (scholars of Hadith), the Hijazi source enjoys greater importance and reliabilities than the other sources. Indeed Imam Maalik in his compilation of the AHadith on the regulations of Shari’ah regarded the Hijazi source as the most important. His collection is well-known as Muwatta Imam Maalik.
We next have the chief of the Muhadditheen , Muhammad ibn Isma’il Bukhari His
conditions, were very strict and he selected from the authorities ( isnad sanad) of the Hijaz , Iraq and Syria to give a greater field to the science of Hadith . He classified the narrations in his jam’e into different headings which included Prophet’s biography history
ethics, belief, worship, mutual dealings, retribution, interpreting dreams, Tafseer (exegesis), qira’at (Quran recital), etc. He created a proper chapter for each heading in his Jam’e so that this book is regarded as the most authoritative book after the book of Allah.
Imam Muslim followed in the footsteps of Imam Bukhari **■->. However, he did away with repetition of Hadith and collection together the different isnad or sources of the AHadith. This arrangement found universal approval so that some quarters preferred Muslim to Bukhari. The fact, however, is that Bukhari is superior to Muslim because of greater reliability of his selection of chains of narrators (sources, authorities) and division into headings and comprehensiveness.
The third stage had front rank distinguished scholars of Hadith like Abu Dawood Sajistani Abu Isa Tirmidhi and Abdur Rahman Nasa’i. However these people have not
matched Bukhari and Muslim in examining the sources ( or chains of narrators) in as great a detail. In spite of that none of them has given place to any forsaken or rejected Hadith.
These are the six books; Bukhari Muslim. Tirmidhi , Abu Dawood, Muwaita Imam Maalik and Nasa’i. They are regarded as the basic and original books on the science of Hadith and the scholars call them the Sihah sittah (the six correct ones).
In 737 AH, the author of Mishkat, Allamah wali uddin Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Abdullah al Khateeb al-Tabrayzee, collected the AHadith in Sihah Sittah and other well-known books of AHadith with had a strong isnad (chain of transmittors) and a reliable text This indeed is a great boon for the Muslim Ummah. The fact that the Mishkat al Masabeeh continues to enjoy recognition to this day speaks volumes for the sincere intention of the author. For a long time, the Mishkat and Mashriq al Anwar were the base round which the science of Hadith
revolved in India. It was when Mawlana Shah Waliullah Dehlavi concentrated on
teaching the science of Hadith and introduced the other books of Hadith to the scholars that the Mishkat stepped down to second position after the Sihah sittah but even then it was never overlooked as an important educational tool. Today, while the Sihah sittah and innumerable other books of Hadith are in wide circulation in our country, the usefulness of Mishkat cannot be denied. It is this general usefulness that motivated the Islamic Scholars of every age to work on different aspects of this book. Among such works are. Mulla Ali Qari’s Mirqat al Mafateeh Sharah Mishkat al Masabeeh , Shayklt Abdul Haq’s (Dahlavi) Sharah Mishkat (Persion) and Lama’aat Sharah Mishkat (Arabic), AUmnah Hiisayn ibn Muhammad ibn Abdullah al-Taybi’s Taybi Sharah Mishkat and Nawab Qutubuddin Khan’s (Dehlavi) Mazahir Haq Sharah Mishkat (Urdu). The last is a summary of Shaykh Abdul Haq Sharah Mishkat , and it caters to the Urdu knowing people since then The style of language plays a great part in the usefulness or otherwise of a work. In this age when people are less interested in religion and knowledge of religion, the Islamic Scholars seize every opportunity to help religion and propagate it.
Accordingly, it is very pleasing that the young Mawlana , Abdullah Jawaid Ghazipuri, a graduate of Deoband has presented Mazahir Haq in a very clear and lucid Urdu. May Allah bless his effort and accept his service in this regard.
Muhammad Saalim Teacher Dar ul Uloom Administrator: Idarah taj al Ma’arif, Deoband Thursday
8 th Rabi ul Annual 1380 AH 1 st September 1960